Dukan's diet

This diet was developed by French dietitian Pierre Dukan. It gained widespread popularity in 2000 after the publication of the book "I can not lose weight", in which scientists described in detail the basic principles and features of this diet. The publication has sold millions of copies worldwide and has been translated into 32 different languages. Since then, Dr. Five more books have been published where the store shares recipes every day. ("60 Days with Dr. Dukan", "350 Dukan Diet Recipes", "Slow Heat Recipes in Dukan Diet", "Dukan Diet Desserts").

Dr. Dukan and his weight loss diet

However, this technique has a mixed reputation in the scientific community. For example, in 2013, Luris Aronie, an American doctor and weight loss specialist, criticized diet at an international seminar on lipid metabolism and healthy eating in Austria. He argued that long-term low-carbohydrate diets had a negative effect on kidney function and could lead to kidney failure. In addition, the Pierre Dukan technique, although it can cause weight loss, is almost always fraught with "breaking" and subsequent recovery of lost pounds.

In January 2014, Pierre Ducane was removed from the register of doctors for violating the professional code (he approached medicine as a business and very aggressively promoted his nutrition plan). However, in 2016, this method ranked 38th out of 38 in the "Best Diets for Healthy Eating" rating. It is important that the list with such a promising name is compiled not by anyone, but by the American Council of Health Experts, consisting of experienced nutritionists, endocrinologists, cardiologists and psychologists. If they consider it appropriate to mention the methodology of the "disgraced" French in the list of the best industrial products, then it is not so simple. Let's try to understand the basics.

Abbreviations (abbreviations) of Dukan diet.

Describing his methodology in articles and books, Pierre Dukan actively used abbreviations, which have long been "popular", widely used on the Internet and almost standard to discuss a number of nutrition issues:

Reduction Decryption
DD Dukan's diet
OO Oat bran
ON wheat bran
RO Rye bran
QC Corn starch
ZHZhK Fat burning cocktail
Sahzam, Shekerzam Sugar substitute
Kraxsod Foods containing starch
BW Pure protein days
BO Protein and vegetable days
PV Proper weight
television Current weight
ZhV The desired weight
HB Starting weight
RECEPTION Holiday dinner
warhead Protein Thursday
COM Skim milk powder
KD Critical days
DOP Suitable Products
Cruise Mixed stage
Correct Consolidation phase
stump Stabilization phase
1/1, 2/2, 3/3, 4/4, 5/5, 5/2 Schemes used in the alternate stage

The mechanism of action of the Dukan diet

The basis of the diet is a state of ketosis - a natural metabolic process characterized by carbohydrate starvation of cells. Due to the reduction in the amount of simple sugars, the body switches to a special mode of operation, which uses energy from its own fat deposits to maintain vital functions. Therefore, the "according to Dukan" diet is based on "increased" consumption of protein-rich foods and limiting the amount of carbohydrates and fats:

  • animal or vegetable protein is absorbed long enough to provide a long-lasting feeling of satiety;
  • In order to digest such foods, the body needs more energy than other categories of products (fats, carbohydrates, etc. ).

Pros and cons of the Dukan diet

You can find many positive reviews about Dukan nutrition system on the Internet. These include:

  • fairly rapid weight loss;
  • there are no serious restrictions on portion sizes;
  • the menu can be adjusted to your wishes and financial capabilities: meat dishes can be replaced with low-fat offal, dairy products, cheeses, cheaper types of fish can be used;
  • no need to count calories.

Weight loss experts warn patients that it is possible to lose weight with the Dukan diet, but the following side effects can occur:

Lack of vitamins and trace elements Dukan nutrition ensures that certain foods consumed are severely restricted. As a result, the body does not receive enough nutrients.
Increased stress on the kidneys The breakdown of proteins in the digestive system is accompanied by the release of acetone. With proper, balanced nutrition, its excretion is low, ie normal and not felt. High concentrations can result in cerebral edema, respiratory disorders, heart activity, impaired consciousness, and even death.
Lack of lipids Fats are an important component for the human body, ensuring the normal functioning of many systems. Prolonged deficiency will lead to a decrease in the production of many hormones and damage to internal organs. Fans of the Dukan diet often suffer from menstrual irregularities and the impossibility of getting pregnant.
Weight loss with ketosis In the first stage, weight loss occurs due to fluid loss. In this case, as a rule, no adverse reactions are observed. As the body begins to use body fat as fuel, the body falls into a state of ketosis, and large-scale reconstruction of many systems, accompanied by migraines, nervousness, and depression, begins. All this increases the risk of heart disease, heart attack and stroke.
Sweeteners Pierre Dukan offers to replace ordinary sweets with alternatives made using spices. The most popular is aspartame. Numerous studies have identified more than 90 symptoms associated with its use. In addition, the consequences are truly catastrophic: from spasm and pain in the joints to multiple sclerosis and lupus erythematosus.
Poisoning by protein breakdown products The body can only absorb a certain amount of protein. Everything else decomposes in the intestines, leaving toxic decay products. This can be evidenced by bad breath, which is common in people who lose weight according to the Dukan system.
Indigestion, fecal problems Raw protein activates pathogenic microflora, which disrupts the absorption of nutrients. Lack of fiber, plant fibers and fats can cause long-term constipation.

All this should be taken into account before switching to a diet.

Where to start

You need to start preparing for the diet by carefully studying its stages. Each of them will be discussed in more detail in a separate article. The basic principles and provisions, the necessary products should be emphasized for the first time. Pierre Ducan advises to clean the refrigerator from "forbidden" products. According to him, this is a good way to prevent failures.

The process of protein breakdown, as already mentioned, is accompanied by the release of toxic substances. Therefore, it is necessary to drink enough clean drinking water every day. The usual norm for those who want to lose weight is 30 grams per 1 kg of body weight - about 1, 5-2 liters per day. Water will help remove toxins from the body, lighten the load on the kidneys and organs of the excretory system.

It is also better to study books with recipes (for example, to create the most diverse menu for yourself for the week). It is recommended to plan your diet carefully for the next 2-3 days by compiling an accurate list of food purchases in advance. This will help to avoid unplanned meals and harmful "snacks".

The essence of the Dukan protein diet

The essence of a protein diet can be reduced to the following basic principles:

  1. Products fall into two main categories: prohibited and allowed.
  2. The basis of nutrition is protein-rich foods.
  3. Carbohydrates and fats are almost completely excluded.
  4. The amount of salt intake is minimized because it retains water in the body.
  5. Alcohol is prohibited, only dry white wine is allowed for final consumption.
  6. The products from the "allowed" list are practically unlimited in terms of consumption.
  7. Oat bran is one of the most important foods. They improve digestion and reduce the risk of constipation.

Features of nutrition according to the shop

It will not be easy to stay on the Dukan diet for a long time. The following tips will help you adjust to your body and prepare for serious tests:

  • you should think about your diet in advance: gradually reduce portions, add protein foods, monitor water balance;
  • learn recipes in advance, cook some. A boring, monotonous menu is the first step on the road to disaster;
  • In the first stage, it is better to use a ready-made menu during the day. You can find detailed schedules on the Internet, based on which you can choose a diet according to your preferences;
  • Stress and overwork should be avoided as much as possible.

Four stages of the Dukan diet

There are four main stages of the Dukan diet:

  1. An attack in which major weight loss occurs. It lasts about five days.
  2. An alternative to long-term weight loss. It lasts until you reach the desired weight, it can take several months.
  3. Fixation allows you to correct the result. The duration of this stage is calculated according to a certain formula and depends on the number of kilograms lost.
  4. Stabilization that allows you to keep the result for as long as possible.

Attack - the first stage of the diet

The attack is the first and shortest period of the Dukan diet, which lasts from two to ten days. It all depends on the amount of extra pounds. The easiest way to calculate the ideal weight is to subtract 100 from the height. For example, the optimal body weight for a height of 168 centimeters will be 168-100 = 68 kg.

Next, you need to select the duration of the attack phase:

Number of extra pounds Term
Less than 5 a
Less than 10 3
10 - 20 5
Above 20 6-10

At this stage, you must follow the following rules:

  • strictly follow the menu, do not skip meals;
  • Consume at least 1-2 tablespoons of oat bran a day;
  • Don't limit yourself to portion sizes.
  • Exclude high-intensity workouts, a light walk is enough.

List of allowed products:

  • beef;
  • horse meat;
  • beef meat;
  • offal: tongue and liver;
  • bird;
  • rabbit;
  • ham from any meat with a fat content of up to 4%;
  • fresh fish;
  • smoked fish with a fat content not exceeding 10%;
  • lean canned fish;
  • sea products;
  • chicken eggs (protein only);
  • low-fat dairy products;
  • coffee Tea.

List of banned products:

  • pork;
  • mutton;
  • sugar;
  • confectionery and flour products;
  • vegetable oil;
  • butter;
  • ketchup;
  • mayonnaise;
  • xama.

Reasonable amounts are allowed:

  • up to two tablespoons of unsweetened tomato paste;
  • two tablespoons of rose water made from berries;
  • gelatin, agar-agar;
  • up to 8 crab sticks per day;
  • lemon as a spice;
  • balsamic vinegar;
  • soy sauce;
  • cumin, parsley, onion;
  • sugar substitutes.

Preferred cooking methods:

  • double boiler;
  • grill;
  • Soba;
  • fat-free or fat-free cooking.

Alternative - the second stage

At this stage:

  1. Protein days should be replaced with protein-vegetable days.
  2. On protein days, you can eat all the foods listed in the list allowed in the previous paragraph.
  3. The alternative scheme can be different, chosen according to feelings, personal preferences. It can be 1/1 (one protein day, one protein-vegetable day) or 2/2, 3/3, 4/4, 5/5, 5/2.
  4. It is better to eat vegetables raw or steamed, grilled, boiled and baked, baked in the oven.
  5. No fat should be added to salads, but nonfat yogurt, balsamic vinegar, garlic and herbs can be added.
  6. Still need to consume 1-2 tablespoons of wheat bran daily.
  7. You can increase physical activity by adding a small number of strength exercises to your daily walks.

During the first two weeks, there is a weight loss: it does not change from a certain value, even with a lack of calories. This is a completely normal phenomenon due to the body's protective reactions.

The following vegetables can be added to the list of allowed foods:

  • cucumber;
  • tomato;
  • radish;
  • spinach;
  • asparagus and asparagus beans;
  • cabbage;
  • celery;
  • leeks;
  • dill;
  • any salad;
  • eggplant;
  • pumpkin;
  • mushrooms;
  • pepper.

Prohibitions include: peas, lentils, red and white beans, potatoes, corn. You should also limit your consumption of carrots and beets.

Phase - consolidation (consolidation)

The weight does not change during the fixation phase. This stage helps a person to return to a more familiar diet and adapt to it again. This period is considered the most difficult: few people are able to independently develop eating habits, get rid of complexes, self-doubt and come to harmony with their body. All this is easier to do with the support of a competent psychologist. Lack of psychological advice and support can be considered another drawback of the Dukan diet - it may be possible to tolerate difficulties, restrictions, but how to learn to live again in your "new old" body?

So, the "Dukan" method of weight loss has been used, it is coming to an end, the last step remains - decide on the duration of rehabilitation. It depends on the number of kilograms lost:

Number of kilograms thrown Duration of the fixation phase
Less than 5 60-90 days
5 to 10 At least 100 days
10 or more At least 200 days

At this stage:

  • additional products are included in the menu, but their parts are strictly limited;
  • it is necessary to follow a protein-vegetable diet 6 days a week, one day is allocated for protein foods;
  • continue to consume 1-2 tablespoons of bran daily;
  • increase physical activity, gradually increase the duration of training to 40-60 minutes.

This stage should be divided into approximately two equal intervals, each of which will correspond to the new products:

Products to be presented in the first half of the consolidation phase Products to be presented in the second half of the consolidation phase
  • whole grain, wholemeal bread - up to two slices a day;
  • to bear fruit every day;
  • one serving of starchy foods - once a week;
  • a holiday a week, a favorite meal.
  • two servings of starchy foods a week;
  • two holiday meals a week (but on different days).

These products can be served with vegetables and used as a snack.

Phase - Stabilization

Pierre Ducane and the dietitians who bear his name advertise this method of eating in a perfect way to stay full, balanced and committed to the rest of his life. Defines:

  1. It is necessary to eat in accordance with the rules of the consolidation phase.
  2. It is better to take vegetables and animal protein as the basis of the diet.
  3. It is necessary to arrange one unloading day a week - protein Thursday.
  4. It is worth continuing to use oat bran.
  5. Do not forget about the daily norm of clean drinking water.
  6. Exercise 3-4 full-time per week, walk at least 25 minutes each day.

According to Dukan and his followers, it is strictly forbidden to go beyond these rules, otherwise the lost kilograms will be returned.

Dietary disorders

However, "according to Dukan" long-term nutrition still causes serious changes in the body. People who lose weight often suffer from vitamin and mineral deficiencies, impaired kidney function and deteriorating overall well-being. The body will require products from the list of banned substances for a long time, which will most likely lead to breakdown sooner or later. What to do in this case?

Do not stop during the attack
  • there is no need to stop or resume the diet;
  • increase the duration of the phase by one day;
  • drink more fluids: clean water, green tea;
  • increase the duration of walks to an hour.
Don't stop at the alternative stage
  • adhere to a protein diet for the first two or three days after digestion;
  • increase fluid intake;
  • reduce the amount of salt in the diet;
  • increase training time, walking time.
Do not stop in the consolidation phase Since this stage involves the use of 1-2 festive meals a week, it is enough to exclude the closest according to the plan.

In fact, failure can indicate serious problems. Especially if fatigue, low blood pressure, loss of concentration and attention are observed. In this case, experts recommend postponing the diet for a while and undergoing a thorough clinical examination.

The weight does not come out

As already mentioned, at the beginning of the second stage, the weight may rise to a certain point. This is due to the following reasons:

  1. Lose weight does not consume enough fluids.
  2. There is too much salt in the diet.
  3. Weight gain can occur as a result of premenstrual syndrome, various hormonal disorders and changes.
  4. There are hypodynamics - lack of physical activity.
  5. Violation of the diet, some other established rules.

The following tips will help you lift weights off the dead center:

  • dairy products should be removed from the menu for a while;
  • Remember to use oat bran: weight gain can be caused by digestive problems;
  • increase the level of clean drinking water;
  • Do the exercises longer, more intense.

Weight loss to some extent may also indicate the development of thyroid disease or hormonal disorders. Only a specialist can determine the true causes.

Losses and contraindications

Dukan diet is strictly contraindicated in the following cases:

  1. People with metabolic disorders.
  2. Patients with diabetes.
  3. When there are pathologies of the kidneys, liver, digestive system.
  4. Pregnant and lactating women.
  5. Girls with irregular menstrual cycles.

For people who do not have these problems, the use of the Dukan diet is acceptable, but still it is safe to contact such tests only under the direction of a doctor.

Expert opinion

There are many diets on the internet that differ in name, effectiveness and efficiency with weight loss, composition, restrictions, reviews. So which diet should you choose? It is not enough to read the reviews, you need to understand this problem more deeply, because the result may not be healthy. Setting a goal and just focusing on losing weight is very dangerous and not sustainable. This time we will focus on the analysis of the famous Dukan diet. Feedback is mostly positive, the menu is very complete and interesting.

First, the diet contains protein. Meat is digested in the stomach for the longest time (3-3, 5 hours), which means that you will not go hungry, unlike regular diets. There are also no time or calorie restrictions, which makes it psychologically easier to follow the principles of nutrition. If we consider the second and third phases of this diet, the food is not only satisfactory, but also varied, because vegetables and fruits are included in the diet. The body does not need the food you used to eat.

So let's conclude. Dukan diet offers:

  • rapid weight loss;
  • there are no restrictions on time, calories and amount of food;
  • a variety of foods that allow you to prepare the maximum number of different meals and thus prevent dietary depression;
  • in the second stage, vegetables and fruits are added;
  • after such a diet, taste habits change;
  • The outlook on life changes in the true sense of the word.

Protein is an important component of the human body. Good metabolism, beautiful hair, toned skin, etc. However, too much protein in the body can lead to various diseases. Initially, the kidneys begin to suffer, and as the load increases, they begin to function incompletely, the ability to transmit deteriorates, acid accumulates, and as a result, the symptoms characteristic of cystitis and pyelonephritis appear. And if not stopped in time, the work can go as far as organ transplantation. The liver also begins to suffer. Thus, against this background, intoxication appears, the filtration process slows down, blood vessels suffer and the size of the liver increases. This includes the nervous system and the brain. Depression, nervousness, impaired vision. But we will not bypass the gastrointestinal tract. There is a tendency to constipation, impaired intestinal function. To summarize:

  • many contraindications (pregnancy and lactation, children under 18, problems with the kidneys and joints);
  • vitamin deficiency (skin and nervous, cardiovascular problems);
  • fat deficiency (gallbladder, constipation, hormonal imbalance);
  • mental work slows down due to carbohydrate deficiency;
  • small amounts of vegetables;
  • restriction on fruits (cherries, bananas, grapes) and small portions;
  • not possible for hypertensive patients;
  • not possible with gastrointestinal disease;
  • atherosclerosis;
  • diabetes;
  • allergy patients;
  • prone to depression;
  • not available for people who are not physically active;
  • people with high concentration work (doctors and drivers);
  • results: heart disease and breast cancer;
  • in the first stage there may be serious problems with the kidneys;
  • disrupts metabolism;
  • increases cholesterol levels;
  • rectal problems.

Symptoms of hypoglycemia may develop due to lack of carbohydrates. Diets should be strictly followed in accordance with the rules. You can not sit on it for a long time, because an imbalance in the diet can lead to a number of diseases. You should consult your doctor before deciding to lose weight on this diet. After all, the most important thing is not to hurt yourself.